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Yakutsk is the capital of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) situated on Lena River. It was first reached in 1632 by the Cossack Peter Beketov from the upper reaches of Lena river with a detachment of thirty people, where he established a small fort called Lensky. When the site proved subject to flooding and undermining from the River, a new site across the river was chosen in 1643. The new ostrog (fort) was called Yakutsk, and became the capital and trade center for hunters and gold seekers. Presently, Yakutsk city of 200,000 residents is an administrative, scientific and industrial center. The city is 8468 km away from Moscow and 826 km from the nearest railroad, but it is full of life despite the cold and endless distances. Few decades ago, Sakha's frozen lands reveled the world largest deposits of diamonds and world best findings of mammoth fossils.