The Ferghana Valley in the Tien-Shan and Pamir ranges sits in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. For centuries it was along the Silk Route, and is actually a major center of silk production itself. Records indicate that even in the 4th century BC, this was a heavily populated region. It's location, along with a favorable climate for agriculture, made it also the target of invaders. Like many other regions in Central Asia, it was in the middle of a tug-of-war between east and west, hosting a number of conquering armies over the centuries.
The decline of the Silk Route eliminated many of the trade caravans that had crossed through here for so long, but the valley still maintained its influence as one of the more productive areas of Central Asia, not only in agriculture, but due to the oil, gas, and precious metals that can be found nearby.
Today, many cities ring the valley, all of which are a great place to stop off and experience the history of the Silk Route.