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The first known record of Tula dates to 1146. Located 180 kilometers south of Moscow, Tula has all of the features of the Russian Golden Ring cities of Yaroslavl, Vladimir, Uglich, and others. It is a mid-size city, known as a historic, cultural, provincial and scientific center. Approximately 200 miles from Tula is the Kulikovo field where the final battle in 1380 freed Slavic people from Ghengis Khan. Only 30 minutes by car from Tula is Leo Tolstoy's estate "Yasnaya Polyana" and his mysterious grave with the legendary story of the "Green stick." Tula enjoys a reputation inside of Russia and all other former-Soviet republics. Every hunter in Siberia knows the products of the 275-year-old Tulsky oruzeinii zavod (Tula weapons factory), all tea drinkers of the Former Soviet Union know where the first samovar was made. Tula's people, Tulyaki, like to share their favorite nearly 400-year-old story about the master smith Levsha who shod the steel louse. Since that time, Tula remains a center for unique metal incrustation works, which are recognized by many collectors. In 1702 Peter the Great awarded the famous Tula smith Nikita Demidov with land in the Ural mountains where rich metal deposits were found, leading to the establishment of metal production. The Demidov dynasty made the Urals famous for all types of metal works and made it the center of the Russian Metallurgy Industry. It would be unfair not to mention that Tula is the city where the world-famous semi-automatic AK-47 was designed and tested by Mr. Kalashnikov. The AK-47 and its further modifications as well as ancient weapons of the Ghengis Khan era can be seen in Russia's only museum of weapons-- located in the 300-year-old Tula Kremlin. Russian Language in Tula can be heard slightly differently than in Moscow or Voronezh due to a phonetic dialect and vocabulary containing old words. Even young people in spite of the information age still often use their grandparent's vocabulary.