Samarkand city (population 400,000) is the second largest city of Uzbekistan. Situated in the Valley of Zarafshan River, Samarkand area benefits from a mix of climatic conditions ranging from alpine mountains to desert like. The real glory of Samarkand begins with Alexander the Great, after he concurred and destroyed (329 B.C.) the regional capital - the ancient Maracanda city. When Alexander entered Samarkand, his first words were: “I heard that Samarkand was beautiful but never thought that it could be so beautiful and majestic”. After Alexander's reign, the city falls under the rule of Persian Empire, then becomes the residence of the Moslem Smnid dynasty, and subsequently the capital of the Mongol Prince Tamerlane (1300s), who makes Samarkand his capital. Best builders, craftsmen, philosophers, scientists are invited to Samarkand to make it even more imposing and beautiful. The reputation of the city grows and spreads fast. The city is referred as the "Pearl of the Moslem World," "Eden of Ancient East," "Rome of the East," and “The Land of Scientists”. The bustle times of Silk Road and prosperous Empires are gone, yet, today Samarkand remains a city of wonders. The most magnificent landmark in this old city is Registan Square- a traditional center of the city. The square is lined on the three sides by sparkling and turquoise tiled buildings of Ulugbek, Sherdor and Tilla Qori Medressas (schools). Interior and exterior facades of the Medressas are decorated with ornament of glazed brick, mosaic and carved marble. The Square is considered an architectural gem representing the finest in Islamic Art. The Other Historical site is Mausoleum of Tamerlane Prince. The majesty of architectural forms and lines and colorful mosaic designs make this Mausoleum a unique monument of medieval architecture. The famous blue ribbed cantaloupe dome of mausoleum rises over the tin roof-tops in central Samarkand. A massive slab of green jade, under which Tamerlane was laid is said to be the largest such stone in the world.